What is the difference between cold and flu?

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Published: July 20, 2013
Last reviewed: October 19, 2016

How to tell the difference between a cold and the flu?

Both a cold and the flu are the respiratory viral infections that most commonly occur during the colder period of the year.

Cold vs flu symptoms chart

Chart 1. Cold vs flu symptoms

A cold is usually a mild disease limited to the nose and throat, but influenza affects your whole body and often puts you into a bed. A severe cold can be hard to distinguish from a mild flu, especially in children. Only laboratory tests can reliably distinguish between a cold and the flu.


Flu symptoms image

Picture 1. Flu symptoms
(source: Wikipedia, Creative Commons licence)

Medical Terms, Etymology and Definitions

A cold

A cold or common cold is medically called acute nasopharyngitis [acute = sudden; naso = nose; pharynx = throat; -itis denotes inflammation] (36). So, a cold is a respiratory viral infection that causes inflammation of the nose and throat.

The flu

The term flu is short for influenza, which is an Italian word that originates from the Latin word influentia, which means influence. In medieval times, they used the word influence for epidemic. Some people also believed that the stars have the influence on the disease (19).

Seasonal or epidemic influenza that appears every year and can affect many people in various regions is a respiratory infection caused by various influenza viruses that affect the nose, throat, lungs, muscles and joints (47).

Other types of flu: 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza (once called “swine flu”), bird flu (avian influenza).

Cold vs Flu Chart

Chart 2. Cold vs Flu: causes, spread, contagious period, symptoms, signs, prevention, treatment.

A cold

The flu

Full name

Common cold Seasonal influenza (in some European languages: grippe, gripe, gripa)

Scientific name, medical term

Acute nasopharyngitis (36) Epidemic influenza (1)

Cause

>200 viruses: rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, influenza A and B virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enterovirus (41,68) Influenza virus type A, subtype H3N2, is the most common (1).Influenza virus type B is usually milder than type A, and type C is milder than type B (13).

Season, Flu Map

Autumn, winter and spring, but also in summer (69-p.171) On the Northern Hemisphere (US, Canada, China, Russia, Europe) the flu season peaks at January/February, but can last from October to March or even May (7).The expected peak in Australia: June to AugustThe flu map

Source of infection and the way of spreading

Sneezing in cold or flu picture

Picture 2. Sneezing
(CDC, CC licence)

Cold and flu spread by shaking hands image
Picture 3. Shaking hands
(Wikimedia, CC licence)

Cold and flu spread door knob picture
Picture 4. Door knob
(WikiHow, CC licence)

Source: infected humans, especially children (41)Spread (11,41,50,70):

  • Hand to hand contact
  • Sneezing, coughing, but probably not by kissing. To prevent spreading the infection by hands, cough into the inside of your elbow rather than cover the mouth by a hand.
  • Touching surfaces or skin within few hours of contamination and then touching the mouth, nose or eyes
  • Sharing neti pots
Source: infected humans (1), rarely infected ferrets (14)Spread (1,12,17,50):

  • Sneezing, coughing, talking (2 m distance), kissing or other face-to-face contact
  • Sharing flatware
  • Hand contact with droplet-contaminated surfaces (shaking hands, door handles, light switches, telephones, computer keyboards, office equipment, money, public toilets) and then touching your mouth, eyes or nose. The flu viruses can remain active on surfaces from 2 to 8 hours.
  • Sharing neti pots

The flu is probably NOT spread by sexual intercourse itself.

Risk factors

  • Common factors (11,41): Exposure to children, lack of sleep, psychological stress
  • Risk factors for severe common cold: smoking, malnutrition, low immunity, underlying chronic disease (11,37)
Age <5 or >65, chronic disease (diabetes, asthma, chronic bronchitis, kidney, heart or liver disease, cancer, impaired mobility, sickle cell anemia), impaired immunity (HIV/AIDS, steroids, aspirin), pregnancy, increased exposure (health workers) (1,8), smoking (53)

Incubation period (from exposure to onset of symptoms)

10 hours-5 days, usually 1-3 days (11,41,44) 1-4 days; in average 2 days (1)

Contagious period

From 2 days before the onset to the end of symptoms but less likely after 7th day of symptoms; increases with symptom severity (42,43)
  • Adults: from 1 day before to 5-10 days after symptoms onset (1).
  • Small children: from several days before to 10+ days after the onset of symptoms or 24 hours after fever is gone (1,44).
  • Individuals with low immunity: weeks to month after the onset of symptoms (1).

Affected body part

Nose, throat (36) Nose, throat, lungs, muscles, joints (47)

SYMPTOMS

References (10,41) References (1,10)
– Onset Slow, over few days Usually quick, in few hours
– Stuffy, runny nose, sneezing Common Sometimes
– Dry cough Common Sometimes
– Sore throat Common, mild Sometimes
– Headache Rarely, mild Common, can be severe
– Fever Rarely; low; more common in children Usually; high (often above 39 °C), lasts 3-4 days; in small children may be absent
– Cold sores Possible Possible
Sweating Rare Common
– Chills Less likely Often
– Muscle pains Less likely Common
– Tiredness No or mild Common, can last 2-3 weeks
– Exhaustion Not likely Common
– Vomiting, diarrhea Not likely Sometimes, mainly in children

Duration of symptoms

2-14 days (average: 7-10 days) (41) Main symptoms resolve in 3-7 days; malaise and cough may persist >2 weeks (1,10)

Signs

Swollen nasal mucosa, red throat, possibly enlarged lymph nodes in the neck (11) Swollen nasal mucosa, red throat

Complications, prognosis

  • Sinusitis, infection of the middle ear, aggravation of asthma (10), swollen neck glands, bronchitis (chest pain, coughing up thick phlegm) (39), cold sores
  • Death is not likely, except in underlying diseases ( bronchiolitis in infants, low immunity, like in HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases in elderly (41)
Complications, which may be deadly, are more likely in young children, people after 65, those with chronic diseases and pregnant women (10).

  • Adults: dehydration (thirst, dry mouth and lips, wrinkled skin, low amount of dark urine in the morning) bronchitis (cough with chest pain, coughing up mucus), viral pneumonia (and increased risk of bacterial pneumonia), sinusitis, infection of the middle ear (otitis media), aggravation of the underlying lung or heart disease (1)
  • Young children: dehydration, febrile seizures, encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, myositis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Reye syndrome (1)
  • Death is rare in otherwise healthy adults but common in those with low immunity and chronic diseases (1,10).

Diagnosis, tests

Usually, no tests are needed.Sinus endoscopy or CT or MRI, when complicated sinusitis is suspected (46) A throat or nasal swab or nasal aspirate within 4 days of symptoms onset followed by:

  • Rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT): results in 15 minutes in a doctor’s office; can detect whether a person has the flu or not (false negative and positive results are possible: 50-70% sensitivity, ~90% specificity). RIDT tests cannot distinguish among seasonal influenza, 2009 influenza H1N1 and avian influenza (2,29).
  • Culture made from nasal or throat swabs: result in 3-10 days; can distinguish between all types and subtypes of influenza (2,49).

Prevention

  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Avoid shaking hands with infected people.
  • Oral zinc supplements, within 24 h after the onset of symptoms, may shorten the duration of symptoms. NOTE: Oral zinc can cause nausea; nasal zinc sprays may cause permanent loss of smell (11,50,71). 
  • Probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium may shorten symptoms a bit (72).

NOT proven effective: alcohol sanitizers (gels), Andrographis, Astragalus, Chinese herbal medicines, Echinacea, elderberry, garlic, green tea, guided imagery, honey, hydrotherapy, nasal irrigation (neti pot) (87), North American ginseng, stress management, vitamins C, D, E (11,50,68).

  • Avoiding contact with infected people, washing hands with soap and wearing facial masks can reduce the risk of infection (32,63,64,67). 
  • Antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir, when taken each day during potential exposure to flu and for at least 7 days after last exposure, are 70-90% effective (3,35).

NOT proven effective: alcohol sanitizers for hands, Chinese herbal medicines, Echinacea, elderberry, green tea, nasal irrigation (neti pot) (87), N-acetylcysteine, North American ginseng, Oscillococcinum, pomegranate extract, vitamin C or D (11,50).

Vaccines

No vaccines have been developed because many different types of viruses can cause a cold.
  • Regular seasonal flu shot (an intramuscular injection) for age 6 months and older (73)
  • A recombinant flu vaccine (an intramuscular injection) for persons age 18 or older with allergies to eggs (77)
  • A high-dose vaccine (an intramuscular injection) for age 65 and older (74)
  • An intradermal vaccine (an injection into the skin) for age 18-64 (75)
  • The nasal spray flu vaccine (LAIV – Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine) for age 2-49 (76)
  • Details about flu vaccines

Treatment

  • For nasal blockage: nasal decongestants for 2-3 days (longer use may aggravate blockage): ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline
  • For headache, fever, but not blocked nose: nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): aspirin (NOT for children), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen
  • For sneezing: antihistamines (diphenhydramine); side effects: drowsiness, dry mouth

NOTE: Antibiotics are not effective and should not be used to treat common cold.

References: (10,11,51)

  • Bed rest, fluid (herbal tea, soup)
  • Antiviral drugs can shorten the flu duration of symptoms if taken within 24 h after onset of symptoms (3):
    • Oseltamivir (for adults, children older than 2 weeks and pregnant women) for 5 days. Side effects: nausea, vomiting, delirium.
    • Zanamivir: the same as above but not for children <7 y/o. Side effects: diarrhea, nausea, sinusitis, nasal signs and symptoms, bronchitis, cough, headache, dizziness, and ear, nose and throat infections.
  • Adults:
    • For fever: anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen)
    • For runny nose: antihistamines (clemastine, loratadine)
    • For stuffed nose: decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, pseudoephedrine)
  • Children:
    • Do NOT give any non-prescription (OTC) drugs, such as cough syrups (expectorants), cough suppressants (antitussives), antihistamines or nasal decongestants to children <2 y/o because of potential serious side effects (rapid heart rate, convulsions, impaired consciousness, death) (88).
    • For fever: paracetamol or ibuprofen, but NOT aspirin to avoid Reye’s syndrome (severe liver damage)

NOTE: Antibiotics are not effective and should not be used to treat flu.

References: (3,9,51,52)

 

Immunity

Having a cold does not protect you from getting a cold again soon (41) Having the flu does not necessary protect you from getting the flu again in the same flu season, because you can get infected by another strain of the virus that you are not immune to (17).

Flu Vaccines Types and Side Effects

Flu vaccines contain killed or weakened (attenuated) influenza viruses. Vaccination triggers the production of antibodies against influenza viruses in your body (73).

All below vaccines, if you get them once a year, should protect you against flu for the whole. Despite vaccination, there is a small chance you catch a flu infection caused by a flu virus strain not included in the vaccine.

Trivalent flu vaccine protects against 3 types of influenza: seasonal influenza A (H3N2) and one type of influenza B, and 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), but not against variant seasonal influenza (H3N2v) and bird (avian) flu (73)Quadrivalent flu vaccine additionally protects against another type of influenza B virus (78).

  • Regular seasonal flu shot (trivalent or quadrivalent) is an intramuscular injection with a needle, usually in the upper arm; it contains killed viruses. It is intended for anyone older than 6 months, including pregnant women; especially for health workers, persons older than 65 and those with chronic diseases (asthma, heart disease, diabetes), residents of nursing homes, contacts with infants younger than 6 months (5,73).
  • A recombinant flu shot (trivalent) is an intramuscular injection for individuals 18 years or older who are allergic to eggs; it is made without using eggs (77).
  • A high-dose vaccine (trivalent) is an intramuscular injection that contains 4 times the amount of antigen as the regular vaccine and is, according to CDC.gov, about 25% more effective; it is intended for people after age 65 (74,79).
  • An intradermal vaccine (trivalent) is for injection into the skin, using smaller needle; it is intended for individuals from age 18 to 64 (75). It is about as effective as intramuscular vaccine (34,75).
  • The nasal spray flu vaccine or LAIV – Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (quadrivalent) contains live weakened influenza viruses (76). It is intended for healthy, nonpregnant persons age 2-49, once a year, for some children twice a year. In adults, it is as effective (65,66,76), and in children (6 months to 6 years), it is, according to 2 studies, 53-55% more effective than intramuscular vaccine (83,84).

Eventual antiviral drugs must be stopped at least 48 hours before vaccination. Vaccine needs 2 weeks to become fully protective.

Vaccine Effectiveness

Results of studies about flu vaccines effectiveness:

  • According to CDC.gov “flu vaccine reduces a person’s risk of developing flu illness that results in a visit to the doctor’s office or urgent care provider by 60%” (81). The effectiveness of flu vaccine for the season 2014/2015 as estimated in January 2015 by CDC.gov was only 23%, though (90).
  • According to one 2012 systematic review of studies (1967-2011), in individuals age 18-65, trivalent vaccine was effective in 59% cases, and in children age 8-17, nasal spray (LAIV vaccine) was 83% effective in prevention of the flu (86).
  • In one 2013 Danish study, flu vaccination in a 2012/2013 season was effective against influenza A in 11%, and against influenza B in 69% cases (80).
  • In one study in the United States in 2007/2008 season, from 629 vaccinated participants, 177 (28%) got influenza A (H3N2) within the same season; the mean interval between vaccination and illness was 101 days (82).

Possible Vaccine Side Effects

  • Flu vaccines do not cause flu.
  • Intramuscular, but more likely high dose and intradermal vaccines, can cause soreness, swelling, redness and itching at the injection site, headache, muscle ache or tiredness, which can last 3-7 days.
  • Nasal spray. Possible side effects in children: runny nose, headache, wheezing, vomiting, muscle aches, fever; in adults: runny nose, headache, sore throat, cough.
  • Life-threatening allergic reactions (breathing problems, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, dizziness), within few minutes or hours after the shot, are very rare, more likely in persons with a severe allergy to eggs, because the viruses used in most influenza vaccines are grown in hens’ eggs.
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute neurological disorder with weak muscles, after the flu shot is very rare.
  • References (73,74,75,76)

Who should NOT get vaccinated: infants <6 mo, anyone with acute illness with fever, allergy to chicken eggs or severe reaction or Guillain-Barre syndrome to a flu vaccine in the past, who is not at high risk of severe illness from the flu (75).

Other Types of Flu

Variant Influenza Virus H3N2v

Influenza viruses that are normally found in pigs are called variant viruses when they infect people. A specific virus influenza A (H3N2v) was first detected in 2011 in the United States, mainly in children. Most infected people were in contact with pigs, which spread the infection by sneezing and coughing. Spread of the virus H3N2v from human to human is not proven (16). You cannot catch this virus by eating properly cooked pork. Severity of symptoms is like in seasonal influenza (H3Nv). As of July 2015, vaccine against H3N2v is not yet available. This type influenza can be treated with the same medications than usual seasonal influenza, that is with oseltamivir and zanamivir (31).

2009 H1N1 Pandemic

The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic was once called “swine flu,” since researchers believed that it has spread from pigs to humans, which probably has occurred initially, but in most cases it spreads from human to human (20). The symptoms of H1N1 influenza resemble those of seasonal flu, but tend to be more severe and more commonly causes death; mortality rates are 1-4% (21,28).

Diagnosis. H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza cannot be distinguished by symptoms but only by laboratory tests of the secretions from the nose and throat (nasal or throat swabs) (21,29):

  • The Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and Characterization Panel (rRT-PCR Flu Panel) can distinguish between H1N1 virus and all other influenza A subtypes that cause seasonal, avian influenza, Influenza A and B viruses, Influenza A subtypes: virus influenza A H3N2 (seasonal influenza), virus influenza A H1N1 (2009 pandemic influenza) and virus influenza A H5N1 and AH7N9 (avian influenza) (30).

Treatment includes antiviral medications oseltamivir and zanamivir within 48 hours of symptoms onset (57).

Yearly trivalent vaccine (the same as for seasonal flu) includes protection against 2009 H1N1 virus (4,15).

What is the swine flu?

Current meaning (as of 2015) of “swine flu” or “swine influenza,” according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the U.S. (56):

  1. Infection in pigs by any type of influenza virus
  2. Infection in humans by the variant influenza virus H3N2v, which spreads from pigs to human; currently only in the United States.

The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic was initially called the swine flu because it has probably spread from pigs to humans on the beginning, but now it mainly spreads from human to human, so the CDC does not use the term swine flu for this type of influenza any more; however, many other institutions and medical websites still do.

The Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

  • So far, avian influenza A (H5N1) in humans, was reported from South Asia, Indonesia, Middle East and Africa (data from WHO from 2003 to June 2013) (27).
  • The outbreak of avian influenza A (H7N9) in humans was reported in April 2013 and was, to date (July 10 2013), limited to China (26).

The bird flu or avian influenza is caused by Avian influenza A (H5N1) (22,24) or influenza A (H7N9) virus (26), which can spread from birds to humans, but less commonly from human to human (22). Humans are most likely infected during close contact with live or dead domestic poultry (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese), their droppings and infected water, equipment, shoes and clothes, but not with properly cooked meat or eggs (22,24). Symptoms of the bird flu resemble those of the seasonal flu, but the bird flu causes much more deaths than seasonal flu; mortality rate can be as high as 60% (22,23). Difficulty breathing, hoarseness and blood in the spit are common.

Diagnosis of the bird flu is confirmed when the virus influenza H5N1 or H7N9 is found in samples of secretions from the nose or throat (nasal or throat swab) within the first few days after symptoms onset; the test used is rRT-PCR Flu Panel (25,55).

Treatment with the antiviral drug oseltamivir or zanamivir within the first two days of symptoms onset, if possible, can reduce the severity of symptoms (22,25).

“Stomach Flu”

The terms stomach flu or gastric, tummy or intestinal flu are often used for an infection of the stomach and intestine (gastroenteritis) caused by rotavirus or other microbes, which can cause both stomach symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea) and flu-like symptoms (fever, stuffy nose) (48). The stomach flu is not related to the seasonal flu and is not caused by the influenza virus.

Chart 3. Diseases with Flu-Like Symptoms

Diseases

Symptoms

Allergic rhinitis Watery discharge, itchy nose, throat and eyes
Sinusitis Pain in the front of the head or on either side of the nose, stuffy nose, thick nasal discharge
Bacterial pharyngitis (e.g. “strep throat”) Sore and red throat, cough, hoarseness, high fever, swollen lymph nodes behind the ears, neck pain
Asthma Attacks of difficult breathing, wheezing
Bronchitis Coughing up yellow/green mucus, difficulty breathing, bluish discoloration of the face and hands
Viral or atypical pneumonia Low-grade fever, malaise, tiredness, dry cough, chest pain
Bacterial pneumonia High temperature (>104 °F or 40°C), shortness of breath
Lyme disease or borreliosis red rash that expands in a bulls eye pattern, fever, chills, fatigue
Tuberculosis coughing up thick mucus or blood, low-grade fever, chest pain, malaise
Viral meningitis fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, rash that does not fade away upon pressing, photophobia, drowsiness
HIV/AIDS
Cancer Pain, fatigue
Leukemia Low-grade fever, fatigue
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) Fatigue, vague muscle aches
Fibromyalgia Fatigue, muscle and joint aches
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by a staph or strep infection in women who use tampons Sudden high fever, low blood pressure, vomiting, rash on palms and soles
Drugs: clopidogrel (blood thinner), efalizumab (for psoriasis), fibrates and statins (to lower cholesterol), lamotrigine (antiepileptic), leflunomide (for rheumatoid arthritis), medroxyprogesterone, mesalazine and sulfasalazine (for inflammatory bowel disease – IBD), rifampin (for tuberculosis), verapamil (for the heart), zolpidem (for insomnia) (33,62) Possible low-grade temperature and rash

Chart 3 reference: (59)

Chart 4. Diseases With Bad Flu-Like Symptoms in Children

Bronchiolitis In infants, small children: stuffy nose, mild fever, mild cough, rapid, shallow breathing
Croup Runny nose, fever, hoarseness and barking cough
Whooping cough (pertusis), a bacterial infection in small children Violent cough in small children
Childhood infections with rashes: measles, chicken pox, rubella, scarlet fever, hand, foot and mouth disease, fifth disease (erythema infectiosum) Rash, fever, sometimes headache or runny nose
Infectious mononucleosis or “mono” Swollen glands in the neck, armpits and groin, low-grade fever

Influenza-Like Illness (ILI)

Influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) are defined as diseases with flu-like symptoms (fever >100 °F or 37.8 °C, cough and/or sore throat) that are not caused by influenza viruses (negative flu test) and their cause remains undetermined in further diagnostic procedures (58).

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

1. Does cold weather increase the risk of common cold and the flu?

According to one hypothesis, you more likely catch a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract in colder months because your nose is colder and thus more susceptible for infections (38). Also, viruses that cause cold and flu survive more readily in lower humidity during the colder months (68,85).

Some researchers believe that exposure to low temperatures does not increase your chance to catch common cold or flu (11,68). In one study, students who had their feet chilled in cold water for 20 minutes got a cold in the next 5 days in 50% more cases than students whose feet were not chilled (41).

There is no clear proof that dampness and mold in houses increases your risk of getting common cold (39).

Exercise, diet or enlarged tonsils have also not been proven as a risk factor for a cold or the flu (68).

2. Can you catch flu from dogs and other animals?

  • Spread of seasonal influenza from ferrets to humans was reported in few cases (14).
  • Pigs can spread variant influenza virus (H3N2v) to humans, so far only in the United States (31). It is not clear if seasonal influenza virus H3N2 and influenza 2009 H1N1 virus are regularly transmitted from pigs to humans.
  • Humans can catch avian influenza H5N3 and H7N9 from birds, mainly poultry (chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys).
  • Transmission of canine influenza from dogs to humans was not reported so far (54).

3. What are early and late symptoms and signs of a cold and the flu?

Early symptoms:

  • A cold: feeling unwell, sneezing, scratchy throat, clear mucus from the nose (41)
  • The flu: sudden fever and headache, which can develop from complete health within an hour (1,10)

Late symptoms:

  • A cold: nose irritation (rhinitis), sneezing, blocked nose with a thick, yellow or green discharge, sore or itchy throat, cough (usually dry), watery and itchy eyes, mild tiredness and, rarely, mild headache or low-grade fever (41,68)
  • The flu: high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches (myalgia), runny nose, tiredness, exhaustion, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhea (mainly in small children) (1,10).
  • Severe flu (with a severe lung inflammation): fast or difficult breathing, bluish lips or fingers, symptoms of dehydration (thirst, dry mouth and lips, less than 200 mL dark urine in the morning, paleness, dizziness), confusion, impaired consciousness (45).

4. Can rash develop in common cold or flu?

  • Cold sores–reactivation of an old Herpes virus infection–on the lips are common both in cold and flu (40).
  • Skin rash usually does NOT occur in common cold and seasonal influenza, but can occur in 2009 H1N1 influenza (pandemic flu) (60). Rash accompanied with flu-like symptoms may be a symptom of other disease, such as meningitis, measles, chickenpox, rubella or infectious mononucleosis.

5. Is a common cold in kids different than in adults?

  • Children tend to get a cold more often than adults (41). Children with a common cold often have fever, while adults rarely have it (41).
  • Aspirin should not be used to treat a cold in infants, children and adolescents in order to avoid the risk of Reye’s syndrome (a severe liver damage) (89).
  • Small children under two years with a common cold should not get any nonprescription medications, since their effect in this age is questionable–in case of severe symptoms, they should be treated appropriately by a doctor (88).

6. Does influenza in babies, toddlers, children and adults differ?

  • Infants with influenza often do not have fever.
  • Children with the flu more often have nausea and vomiting than adults (1,10).
  • In children under seven years of age, oseltamivir is more effective treatment than zanamivir (51).

7. Can a cold turn into the flu?

Sometimes, influenza viruses cause only a mild infection resembling common cold. During its course, the infection can become worse and develop into a full blown flu. Other viruses that usually cause common cold, such as rhinovirus, do not cause influenza, so, in most cases, cold does not turn into the flu.

8. Advice about the diet during a common cold or influenza

The general rule about the diet during uncomplicated infections in otherwise healthy people: eat what agrees with you, do not eat if you do not feel like eating, but drink enough fluid to prevent dehydration. Eat light foods that do not irritate your stomach. days) may be a sign of a more severe disease.

  • Examples of appropriate drinks: plain water, mineral water, herbal tea, sport drinks, chicken soup. Juices, soda and other sweet drinks may aggravate nausea. Small children with repeated vomiting or diarrhea should receive oral rehydration solutions (ORS).
  • Examples of appropriate foods: bread, toast, morning cereals, biscuits, rice, boiled potatoes and other foods that do not trigger nausea. Children can eat what they usually do. According to many pediatricians, children with diarrhea do not need to stick with a BRAT diet (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Toast) but can eat other foods as well. It is good to include some dietary fiber, for example, whole grain bread, to prevent constipation; fruits, legumes and oats may not be convenient, because they may cause abdominal bloating.

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